Y chromosome microdeletions are the second genetic cause of male infertility. The incidence of Y chromosome microdeletions can vary considerably depending on several factors, including patient selection criteria, population composition, and diagnostic protocols. They are associated with spermatogenic failure and lead to azoospermia or oligozoospermia. The advance in assisted reproductive technology and intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and the possibility of genetic defect transmission to the next generation make it necessary to improve our knowledge about the various factors leading to spermatogenic impairment. This study was designed to determine the frequency of microdeletions of Y chromosome in a population from South of Iran. 81 infertile males with non-obstructive azoospermia or oligozoospermia were selected. Multiplex PCR using several STS markers was carried out to detect the complete or partial microdeletions. The frequency of both complete and partial microdeletions in men with azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia was 7.4%. All microdeletions were observed in AZFc region. There was 1.25% complete microdeletions and after excluding complete microdeletions, we detected 5% gr/gr and 1.25% b2/b3 microdeletions. In our control group of fertile males, 4% gr/gr microdeletions was detected while there was no b2/b3 microdeletions. We concluded that there is a low frequency of Y chromosome microdeletions in a population of infertile males from South of Iran. b2/b3 microdeletions was detected only in infertile males and not in the control group. Screening a population with larger sample size is necessary to determine the involvement of this partial microdeletion in infertility of this population.
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